Diamond and its properties
diamond is an independent mineral with the highest hardness of all known
substances (10 in Mohs hardness scale). In chemical composition, diamond
is virtually pure carbon crystallized at cubic syngony. One of most
important properties of diamond is so-called brilliant luster, which
is characteristic of both faces of natural diamond crystals and facets
of polished diamond specimens. A high refraction index of diamond (2.42)
and high dispersion (0.044) provide for the repeated light reflection
inside a diamond grain, which produces a glittering effect. The optical
properties of diamond are responsible for the extraordinary beauty and
life of its cut forms.
Diamonds are used in many areas of human activity; however, first of all, these stones are known as gemstones of the highest value. Although all natural diamonds are considered gemstones, no more than 10-15% of quarried diamonds can be used in jewelry. The remainder are referred to as technical stock. Since the jewelry diamonds are rare in the nature; they become a luxury which not everyone can afford. Diamond has been highly valued over thousands of years of human history; however, the correct evaluation of a particular stone is an exquisite skill, on the verge of art. Every diamond specimen is individual; there are no two identical crystals in the nature.